fi en


EU calls 

Funding Programmes and Open Calls

3R centres and organisations:

European Commission

National centres


European Consensus Platform for Alternatives (ecopa), is an umbrella organisation for national associations),

European Animal Research Association EARA

European Society for Alternatives to Animal Testing EUSAAT

Finnish Laboratory Science Association FinLAS


ICH guidelines for pharmaceutical testing

OECD Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) guidelines

OECD guidelines for chemical safety testing


The Anmal-Free Safety Assessment EU Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing EURL ECVAMUnited States Environmental Protection Agency EPANational Center for Biotechnology Information NCBINational Toxicology Program NTP
Intramural Research Program IPR Guidelines Non-animal Methods of Toxicity Testing


EU projects' databases

EU projects

Laws and regulations:

Publications and abstracts:

  • Michael Balls, Robert Combes, and Andrew Worth (2019). The History of Alternative Test Methods in Toxicology. Academic Press.
  • Smith, AJ, Clutton, RE, Lilley, E, Hansen KEAa, Brattelid, T. (2018) PREPARE Guidelines for animal testing:
  • Prescott MJ, Lidster K (2017). Improving quality of science through better animal welfare: the NC3Rs strategy. Lab Animal 46 (4): 152–156. DOI: 10.1038/laban.1217.
  • Michael Balls (2009). The Three Rs and the Humanity Criterion, an Abridged version of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by W.M.S. Russel and R.L. Burch. FRAME, Nottingham, UK.
  • Anon. (2000). The three Rs Declaration of Bologna. ATLA 28, 1–
  • Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., (1994) Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science, and Ethics
  • W.M.S. Russel and R.L. Burch (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Methuen, London, UK.